Wednesday, June 27, 2012

Windows 8 Command Line List and Reference

One of the bugs in the beta version seems to be that this entry for the command prompt sometimes gets greyed out. Another route to the command prompt is to place the mouse on the bottom-left corner of the screen and right-click the tile that pops up. The context menu contains an entry both for the regular command line and for the commannd line run as administrator.

Another way to the command prompt will be familiar. Use the keyboard shortcut Winkey+R to open the Run line and then enter "cmd" (without quotes).

Once the command shell is open, it looks pretty similar to previous versions

List of commands in Windows 8

ASSOC Displays or modifies file extension associations.
ATTRIB Displays or changes file attributes.
BREAK Sets or clears extended CTRL+C checking.
BCDBOOT Used to copy critical files to the system partition and to create a new system BCD store.
BCDEDIT Sets properties in boot database to control boot loading.
CACLS Displays or modifies access control lists (ACLs) of files.
CALL Calls one batch program from another.
CD Displays the name of or changes the current directory.
CHCP Displays or sets the active code page number.
CHDIR Displays the name of or changes the current directory.
CHKDSK Checks a disk and displays a status report.
CHKNTFS Displays or modifies the checking of disk at boot time.
CHOICE Batch file command that allows users to select from a set of options.
CIPHER Displays or alters the encryption of directories [files] on NTFS partitions.
CLIP Redirects output of another command to the Windows clipboard.
CLS Clears the screen.
CMD Starts a new instance of the Windows command interpreter.
CMDKEY Creates, lists and deletes stored user names and passwords or credentials.
COLOR Sets the default console foreground and background colors.
COMP Compares the contents of two files or sets of files byte-by-byte
COMPACT Displays or alters the compression of files on NTFS partitions.
CONVERT Converts FAT volumes to NTFS. You cannot convert the current drive.
COPY Copies one or more files to another location.
DATE Displays or sets the date.
DEFRAG Disk defragmenter accessory.
DEL Deletes one or more files.
DIR Displays a list of files and subdirectories in a directory.
DISKCOMP Compares the contents of two floppy disks.
DISKCOPY Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another.
DISKPART Displays or configures Disk Partition properties. A separte command interpreter with a sub-set of commands.
DOSKEY Edits command lines, recalls Windows commands, and creates macros.
DRIVERQUERY Displays current device driver status and properties.
ECHO Displays messages, or turns command echoing on or off.
ENDLOCAL Ends localization of environment changes in a batch file.
ERASE Deletes one or more files.
EXIT Quits and closes the command shell.
EXPAND Expands one or more compressed files.
FC Compares two files or sets of files, and displays the differences between them.
FIND Searches for a text string in a file or files.
FINDSTR Searches for strings in files.
FOR Runs a specified command for each item in a set.
FORFILES Selects files in a folder for batch processing.
FORMAT Formats a disk for use with Windows.
FSUTIL Displays or configures the file system properties.
FTYPE Displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations.
GOTO Directs the Windows command interpreter to a labeled line in a batch program.
GPRESULT Displays Group Policy information for machine or user.
GRAFTABL Enables Windows to display an extended character set in graphics mode.
HELP Provides Help information for Windows commands.
ICACLS Display, modify, backup, or restore ACLs for files and directories.
 IF Performs conditional processing in batch programs.
IPCONFIG Displays all current TCP/IP network configuration values
LABEL Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk.
MD Creates a directory.
MKDIR Creates a directory.
MKLINK Creates Symbolic Links and Hard Links
MODE Configures a system device.
MORE Displays output one screen at a time.
MOVE Moves one or more files from one directory to another directory.
OPENFILES Queries, displays, or disconnects open files or files opened by network users.
PATH Displays or sets a search path for executable files.
PAUSE Suspends processing of a batch file and displays a message.
POPD Restores the previous value of the current directory saved by PUSHD.
PRINT Prints a text file.
PROMPT Changes the Windows command prompt.
PUSHD Saves the current directory then changes it.
RD Removes a directory.
RECOVER Recovers readable information from a bad or defective disk.
REM Designates comments (remarks) in batch files
REN Renames a file or files.
RENAME Renames a file or files.
REPLACE Replaces files.
RMDIR Removes a directory.
ROBOCOPY Advanced utility to copy files and directory trees
SET Displays, sets, or removes environment variables for current session.
SETLOCAL Begins localization of environment changes in a batch file.
SETX Sets environment variables.
SC Displays or configures services (background processes).
SCHTASKS Schedules commands and programs to run on a computer.
SHIFT Shifts the position of replaceable parameters in batch files.
SHUTDOWN Allows proper local or remote shutdown of machine.
SORT Sorts input.
START Starts a separate window to run a specified program or command.
SUBST Associates a path with a drive letter.
SYSTEMINFO Displays machine specific properties and configuration.
TAKEOWN Allows an administrator to take ownership of a file.
TASKLIST Displays all currently running tasks including services.
TASKKILL Kill or stop a running process or application.
TIME Displays or sets the system time.
TIMEOUT Pauses the command processor for the specified number of seconds.
TITLE Sets the window title for a CMD.EXE session.
TREE Graphically displays the directory structure of a drive or path.
TYPE Displays the contents of a text file.
VER Displays the Windows version.
VERIFY Tells Windows whether to verify that your files are written correctly to a disk.
VOL Displays a disk volume label and serial number.
VSSADMIN Volume Shadow Copy Service administration tool
WHERE Displays the location of files that match a search pattern.
XCOPY Copies files and directory trees.
WMIC Displays WMI information inside interactive command shell. 
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A to Z linux commands

Here are some linux commands for you so you can make your hands more and more dirty with ubuntu terminal.

mkisofs Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem

mknod Make block or character special files
more Display output one screen at a time

mount Mount a file system

mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files

mtr Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)

mv Move or rename files or directories

adduser Add a user to the system

addgroup Add a group to the system

alias Create an alias •

apropos Search Help manual pages (man -k)

apt-get Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)

aptitude Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)

aspell Spell Checker

awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
basename Strip directory and suffix from filenames
bash GNU Bourne-Again SHell
bc Arbitrary precision calculator language
bg Send to background
break Exit from a loop •

builtin Run a shell builtin

bzip2 Compress or decompress named file(s)
cal Display a calendar
case Conditionally perform a command

cat Display the contents of a file

cd Change Directory

cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux

chgrp Change group ownership

chmod Change access permissions

chown Change file owner and group

chroot Run a command with a different root directory

chkconfig System services (runlevel)

cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts
clear Clear terminal screen

cmp Compare two files

comm Compare two sorted files line by line
command Run a command – ignoring shell functions •
continue Resume the next iteration of a loop •

cp Copy one or more files to another location

cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands

crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time

csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces

cut Divide a file into several parts
date Display or change the date & time

dc Desk Calculator

dd Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records

ddrescue Data recovery tool
declare Declare variables and give them attributes •

df Display free disk space

diff Display the differences between two files

diff3 Show differences among three files

dig DNS lookup

dir Briefly list directory contents

dircolors Colour setup for `ls’

dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path

dirs Display list of remembered directories

dmesg Print kernel & driver messages

du Estimate file space usage
echo Display message on screen •

egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression

eject Eject removable media

enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands •

env Environment variables

ethtool Ethernet card settings

eval Evaluate several commands/arguments

exec Execute a command

exit Exit the shell
expect Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
expand Convert tabs to spaces
export Set an environment variable
expr Evaluate expressions
false Do nothing, unsuccessfully

fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk

fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux

fg Send job to foreground

fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
file Determine file type
find Search for files that meet a desired criteria

fmt Reformat paragraph text
fold Wrap text to fit a specified width.
for Expand words , and execute commands
format Format disks or tapes
free Display memory usage

fsck File system consistency check and repair

ftp File Transfer Protocol
function Define Function Macros

fuser Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file

gawk Find and Replace text within file(s)
getopts Parse positional parameters
grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groups Print group names a user is in
gzip Compress or decompress named file(s)
hash Remember the full pathnameof a name argument
head Output the first part of file(s)
help Display help for a built-in command •
history Command History
hostname Print or set system name
id Print user and group id’s
if Conditionally perform a command
ifconfig Configure a network interface
ifdown Stop a network interface
ifup Start a network interface up
import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
install Copy files and set attributes
jobs List active jobs •
join Join lines on a common field
kill Stop a process from running
killall Kill processes by name
less Display output one screen at atime
let Perform arithmetic on shell variables •
ln Make links between files
local Create variables •
locate Find files
logname Print current login name
logout Exit a login shell •
look Display lines beginning with a given string
lpc Line printer control program
lpr Off line print
lprint Print a file
lprintd Abort a print job
lprintq List the print queue
lprm Remove jobs from the print queue
ls List information about file(s)
lsof List open files
make Recompile a group of programs
man Help manual
mkdir Create new folder(s)
mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
mmv Mass Move and rename (files)
netstat Networking information
nice Set the priority of a commandor job
nl Number lines and write files
nohup Run a command immune to hangups
Notify-send Send desktop notifications
nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively
open Open a file in its default application
op Operator access
passwd Modify a user password
paste Merge lines of files
pathchk Check file name portability
ping Test a network connection
pkill Stop processes from running
popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr Prepare files for printing
printcap Printer capability database
printenv Print environment variables
printf Format and print data •
ps Process status
pushd Save and then change the current directory
pwd Print Working Directory
quota Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage
quotactl Set disk quotas
ram ram disk device
rcp Copy files between two machines
read Read a line from standard input •
readarray Read from stdin into anarray variable •
readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
reboot Reboot the system
rename Rename files
renice Alter priority of running processes
remsync Synchronize remote filesvia email
return Exit a shell function
rev Reverse lines of a file
rm Remove files
rmdir Remove folder(s)
rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
screen Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff Merge two files interactively
sed Stream Editor
select Accept keyboard input
seq Print numeric sequences
set Manipulate shell variables and functions
sftp Secure File Transfer Program
shift Shift positional parameters
shopt Shell Options
shutdown Shutdown or restart linux
sleep Delay for a specified time
slocate Find files
sort Sort text files
source Run commands from a file `.’
split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)
strace Trace system calls and signals
su Substitute user identity
sudo Execute a command as another user
sum Print a checksum for a file
suspend Suspend execution of this shell..
symlink Make a new name for a file

sync Synchronize data on disk with memory
tail Output the last part of files
tar Tape ARchiver
tee Redirect output to multiple files
test Evaluate a conditional expression
time Measure Program running time
times User and system times
touch Change file timestamps
top List processes running on the system
traceroute Trace Route to Host
trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true Do nothing, successfully
tsort Topological sort
tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
type Describe a command •
ulimit Limit user resources •
umask Users file creation mask
umount Unmount a device
unalias Remove an alias •
uname Print system information
unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
uniq Uniquify files
units Convert units from one scaleto another
unset Remove variable or functionnames
unshar Unpack shell archive scripts
until Execute commands (until error)
useradd Create new user account
usermod Modify user account
users List users currently logged in
uuencode Encode a binary file
uudecode Decode a file created byuuencode
v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vdir Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vi Text Editor
vmstat Report virtual memory statistics
watch Execute/display a program periodically
wc Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis Search the user’s $path, man pages and source files for a program
which Search the user’s $path for a program file
while Execute commands
who Print all usernames currently logged in
whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un’)
Wget Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
write Send a message to another user
xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
xdg-open Open a file or URL in theuser’s preferred application.
yes Print a string until interrupted
. Run a command script in the current shell

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Saturday, June 23, 2012

Announcing the Windows 8 Editions

Windows 8 has the flexibility you need - whether you’re on an x86/64 or a WOA PC. You can use a touch screen or a keyboard and mouse – and switch anytime. It’s beautiful, fast, and fluid design is perfect for a wide range of hardware. And you’ll love browsing through the Windows Store and downloading all the apps you want. And those apps can work together too so you can share photos, maps, contacts, links and whatever else you want faster and easier. All editions of Windows 8 offer a no-compromise experience.

First, Windows 8 is the official product name for the next x86/64 editions of Windows.

For PCs and tablets powered by x86 processors (both 32 and 64 bit), we will have two editions: Windows 8 and Windows 8 Pro. For many consumers, Windows 8 will be the right choice. It will include all the features above plus an updated Windows Explorer, Task Manager, better multi-monitor support and the ability to switch languages on the fly, which was previously only available in Enterprise/Ultimate editions of Windows. For China and a small set of select emerging markets, we will offer a local language-only edition of Windows 8.

Windows 8 Pro is designed to help tech enthusiasts and business/technical professionals obtain a broader set of Windows 8 technologies. It includes all the features in Windows 8 plus features for encryption, virtualization, PC management and domain connectivity. Windows Media Center will be available as an economical “media pack” add-on to Windows 8 Pro. If you are an enthusiast or you want to use your PC in a business environment, you will want Windows 8 Pro.

Windows RT is the newest member of the Windows family – also known as Windows on ARM or WOA. This single edition will only be available pre-installed on PCs and tablets powered by ARM processors and will help enable new thin and lightweight form factors with impressive battery life. Windows RT will include touch-optimized desktop versions of the new Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and OneNote. For new apps, the focus for Windows RT is development on the new Windows runtime, or WinRT, which we unveiled in September and forms the foundation of a new generation of cloud-enabled, touch-enabled, web-connected apps of all kinds.

The below chart breaks down key features by edition (this list should not be considered an exhaustive list of features):

Feature name Windows 8 Windows 8 Pro Windows RT
Upgrades from Windows 7 Starter, Home Basic, Home Premium

Upgrades from Windows 7 Professional, Ultimate
Start screen, Semantic Zoom, Live Tiles x x x
Windows Store x x x
Apps (Mail, Calendar, People, Messaging, Photos, SkyDrive, Reader, Music, Video) x x x
Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, OneNote)

Internet Explorer 10 x x x
Device encryption

Connected standby x x x
Microsoft account x x x
Desktop x x x
Installation of x86/64 and desktop software x x
Updated Windows Explorer x x x
Windows Defender x x x
SmartScreen x x x
Windows Update x x x
Enhanced Task Manager x x x
Switch languages on the fly (Language Packs) x x x
Better multiple monitor support x x x
Storage Spaces x x
Windows Media Player x x
Exchange ActiveSync x x x
File history x x x
ISO / VHD mount x x x
Mobile broadband features x x x
Picture password x x x
Play To x x x
Remote Desktop (client) x x x
Reset and refresh your PC x x x
Snap x x x
Touch and Thumb keyboard x x x
Trusted boot x x x
VPN client x x x
BitLocker and BitLocker To Go
Boot from VHD
Client Hyper-V
Domain Join
Encrypting File System
Group Policy
Remote Desktop (host)

Windows RT - Does not Support Boot From VHD, Client Hyper - V, Domain Join, Encrypting File System, Group Policy, Remote Desktop(host), Windows Media player, Storage Space.

In the coming months, we plan to share much more information about Windows 8, including details on pricing and limited-time programs and promotions that we will make available to customers..

NOTE:  As with previous versions of Windows, we will also have an edition of Windows 8 specifically for those enterprise customers with Software Assurance agreements. Windows 8 Enterprise includes all the features of Windows 8 Pro plus features for IT organization that enable PC management and deployment, advanced security, virtualization, new mobility scenarios, and much more..

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Friday, June 22, 2012

Free Windows 8 Download

Windows 8 is the codename for the upcoming version of Microsoft Windows that follows, it is a bold shift from Windows 7 and represents Microsoft’s new direction. but now Windows 8 is under development, We don’t know when the windows 8 will be released, but we can experience the Windows 8 beta version, to feel and outlook the next-generation Microsoft Windows System:Windows 8, Here we will share the lastest Windows 8 download, you can downlaod it free:.

 Minimum system requirements-
1 GHz or faster 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor
16 GB available hard disk space (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit)
1 GB RAM (32-bit) or 2 GB RAM (64-bit)
DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM 1.0 or higher driver
Taking advantage of touch input requires a screen that supports multi-touch
To run Metro style Apps, you need a screen resolution of 1024 X 768 or greater

The Latest Windows 8 Release Preview download: (May 31)

32 bit:
Sha1: 0xD76AD96773615E8C504F63564AF749469CFCCD57

64 bit:
Sha1: 0x8BED436F0959E7120A44BF7C29FF0AA962BDEFC9

If you need other language version of Windows Release Preview: check here

Product Key:

>>What do you Think about Windows 8?
>>Is Windows 8 killing Desktop? 
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Thursday, June 21, 2012

Botnets Working Techniques And its Commands

A botnet is a collection of compromised computers, each of which is known as a 'bot', connected to the Internet. When a computer is compromised by an attacker, there is often code within the malware that commands it to become part of a botnet. The "botmaster" or "bot herder" controls these compromised computers via standards-based network protocols such as IRC and http

Types of attacks-

  • Denial-of-service attacks where multiple systems autonomously access a single Internet system or service in a way that appears legitimate, but much more frequently than normal use and cause the system to become busy.
  • Adware exists to advertise some commercial entity actively and without the user's permission or awareness, for example by replacing banner ads on web pages with those of another content provider.
  • Spyware is software which sends information to its creators about a user's activities – typically passwords, credit card numbers and other information that can be sold on the black market. Compromised machines that are located within a corporate network can be worth more to the bot herder, as they can often gain access to confidential information held within that company. There have been several targeted attacks on large corporations with the aim of stealing sensitive information, one such example being the Aurora botnet.
  • E-mail spam are e-mail messages disguised as messages from people, but are either advertising, annoying, or malicious in nature.
  • Click fraud is the user's computer visiting websites without the user's awareness to create false web traffic for the purpose of personal or commercial gain.
  • Access number replacements are where the botnet operator replaces the access numbers of a group of dial-up bots to that of a victim's phone number. Given enough bots taking part in this attack, the victim is constantly bombarded with phone calls attempting to connect to the internet. Having very little to defend against this attack, most are forced into changing their phone numbers (land line, cell phone, etc.).
  • Fast flux is a DNS technique used by botnets to hide phishing and malware delivery sites behind an ever-changing network of compromised hosts acting as proxies.
  • Brute-forcing remote machines services such as FTP, SMTP and SSH.
  • The worm behavior. Some botnet are designed to infect other hosts automatically.
  • Scareware can install the virus or the virus can install a scareware. For example users can be forced to buy a rogue anti-virus to regain access to their computer.
  • Exploiting systems by using multiple identities such as multiple player at the same poker table and voting system such as music clip and contest.
Download This Source Codes-
By Project HackersGrp

Download 2- Botnet Commands  

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